The Market Debate, Part 4: The Future of French Food

online shopping

A new factor in the food distribution game is one of the main driving forces of globalization as a whole: the Internet. A third method of food distribution is becoming increasingly (albeit slowly) more feasible: online ordering for pick up or even delivery. Supermarket chains like Carrefour and Monoprix are offering online ordering and delivery services, and independent companies providing this service have popped up as well (such as Houra, which also delivers other products – clothes and small furniture – that a supermarket might carry). Could the “cybermarché” be the next step in food distribution, and if so, what will this mean for traditional food networks?

Over the last two weeks I have taken an in-depth look Continue reading

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The Market Debate, Part 3: Inside a Local French Market

french food market paris vegetables

The Saxe-Breteuil market in Paris

The traditional French market, or “marché,” is a historical fixture in French culture and daily life.

A society dedicated to food quality and tradition, the local market is one way the French connect and interact with their nationality; it is an identity performance, a way of sustaining a relationship with traditional foods, the land they came from, and the people who grew them, all of which are specifically French.

One of the earliest examples of a traditional French market was Les Halles, created in 1110. Over the centuries the market grew and transformed to reflect the contemporary market format as a space for buying and selling local foods and products. Today, the food market that once bustled at Les Halles has been relocated in favor of a large commercial shopping center, perhaps an accurate representation of the reorganization of French consumer culture. But despite the meteoric success of supermarkets and fast food, Continue reading

The Market Debate, Part 2: Inside a French Supermarket

carrefour shopping carts grocery store

Where do you buy your food? If you live in France, there’s a good chance the answer is “Carrefour.”

Carrefour is the leading supermarket chain in France. Opened in 1958 by Marcel Fournier, Denis Defforey and Jacques Defforey, it has expanded into a multinational corporation with a revenue of €76.127 billion in 2012 (Carrefour Annual Report). In it’s first 20 years of existence Carrefour opened more than 2,000 stores, and today has locations in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. It is the fourth largest retail operator in the world behind Wal-Mart, Tesco, and Costco (Potter 2011). Directly influenced by the American retail giant, Carrefour replicated the American superstore model as well as its success. However in recent years Carrefour’s profits have remained stagnant due to a combination of increased competition, the global recession, and a growing distrust of industrial food.

The following video depicts a typical walk through one of Carrefour’s “hypermarkets”. Continue reading

The Market Debate, Part 1: Super, or Local?

carrots

Everyone has to eat.

When it comes to buying food, two prominent choices emerge: the supermarket, and the local market or “farmer’s market.” Both are associated with different modes of production, distribution, and cultural values; both have their own benefits and drawbacks. Historically, the local market is a prominent feature of French social life. With the advent of a market economy, it began as a place of local commerce and the driving force of the local economy; as France grew into its prestigious culinary identity the market became a place for small-scale artisanal producers to showcase their high-quality goods in a reaffirmation of regional identity. While markets still exist in France, and are an important feature of local communities, Continue reading